Araştırma Makalesi
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Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 108 - 121, 08.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.1033063

Öz

Artemisia annua L. known as sweet wormwood in ancient literature is an essential oil bearing and medicinal aromatic plant and belongs to Asteraceae family. It has been used for many years in traditional eastern medicine especially in the treatment of malaria and some parasitic diseases, and it gives successful results. Recently, it has been addressed with its potential effect against coronavirus. In this study, naturally growing Artemisia annua L. sample in Uludag, in Bursa province of Turkey, was used as raw drug. The aim of this study is to determine the yields of artemisinin in three different solvent phase extracts using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and examine cytotoxic/genotoxic effect of total ethanol extract on epithelial cells isolated from human bronchial epithelium. The highest amount of artemisinin was found as 0.19 mg/g in ethanol extract. As a result of cell toxicity assay, no cytotoxicity or genotoxicity effect was observed at doses less than 500 µg/mL.

Kaynakça

  • [1] Balandrin M. F. and Klocke J. A. (1988). Medicinal, Aromatic and Industrial Materials From Plants. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants I, Springer, pp. 3–36. ISBN 978-3-642-73028-3.
  • [2] Pandey A. K. and Singh P. (2017). The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review On Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils. Medicines, 4 (3): 68.
  • [3] Faydaoğlu E. and Sürücüoğlu M. (2013). Tıbbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Antimikrobiyal, Antioksidan Aktiviteleri ve Kullanım Olanakları. Erzincan Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6 (2): 233–265.
  • [4] Inoue M., Hayashi S., and Craker L. E. (2019). Role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Past, Present and Future. Pharmacognosy: Medicinal Plants. IntechOpen, pp. 20-30. ISBN 978-1-83880-610-1.
  • [5] Davis P. H. (1970). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press. pp.645.
  • [6] Willcox M. (2009). Artemisia Species: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Antimalarials and Back Again. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 15 (2): 101–109.
  • [7] Li K.M., Dong X., Ma Y.N., Wu Z. H., Yan Y. M., and Cheng Y. X. (2019). Antifungal Coumarins and Lignans from Artemisia Annua. Fitoterapia, 134: 323–328.
  • [8] Klayman D. L. (1985). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): An Antimalarial Drug from China. Science, 228 (4703): 1049–1055.
  • [9] Hien T. T. and White N. J. (1993). Qinghaosu. Lancet British Edition 8845, pp. 603–608.
  • [10] Kazemi M. (2015). Essential Oil of The Aerial Parts Of Artemisia Annua (Asteraceae) from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 18 (4): 1003–1005.
  • [11] Wang S., Li Y., Devinsky O., Schachter S., and Pacia S. (2005). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Springer Reactions, 1620. 1: 173.
  • [12] Wright C. W. (2001). Artemisia. CRC Press. ISBN 0 415 272 12 2.
  • [13] Wu Y., Jiang X., Zhang L., and Zhou V. (2017). Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Volatile Oils in Different Periods of Growth of Artemisia Annua L. from China. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 20 (5): 1320–1330.
  • [14] Erdemoglu N., Orhan I., Kartal M., Adigüzel N., and Bani B. (2007). Determination of Artemisinin in Selected Artemisia L. Species of Turkey by Reversed Phase HPLC. Records of Natural Products, 1(2): 36.
  • [15] Tu Y. (2011). The Discovery of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and Gifts from Chinese Medicine. Nature Medicine, 17 (10): 1217–1220.
  • [16] Ma N., Zhang Z., Liao F., Jiang T., and Tu Y. (2020). The Birth of Artemisinin. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 216: 107658.
  • [17] Li Y. (2012). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): Chemistry and Pharmacology. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 33 (9): 1141–1146.
  • [18] Aderibigbe B. A. (2017). Design of Drug Delivery Systems Containing Artemisinin and Its Derivatives. Molecules, 22 (2): 323.
  • [19] Krishna S., Bustamante L., Haynes R. K., and Staines H. M. (2008). Artemisinins: Their Growing Importance in Medicine. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 29 (10): 520–527.
  • [20]Yang J. (2020). Advances in The Research on the Targets of Anti-Malaria Actions of Artemisinin. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 216: 107697.
  • [21] Feng L. U., Xin-Long H. E., Richard C., and Jun C. A. O. (2019). A Brief History of Artemisinin: Modes of Action and Mechanisms of Resistance. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicine, 17 (5): 331–336.
  • [22] Woodrow C. J. and Bustamante L. Y. (2011). Mechanisms of Artemisinin Action and Resistance: Wider Focus is Needed. Trends in Parasitology, 27 (1): 2–4.
  • [23] Efferth T., Herrmann F., Tahrani A., and Wink M. (2011). Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites Derived from Artemisia Annua L. Towards Cancer Cells in Comparison to Its Designated Active Constituent Artemisinin. Phytomedicine, 18 (11): 959–969.
  • [24] Lubbe A., Seibert I., Klimkait T., and Van der Kooy F. (2012). Ethnopharmacology in Overdrive: The Remarkable Anti-HIV Activity of Artemisia Annua. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141 (3): 854– 859.
  • [25] Taleghani A., Emami S. A., and Tayarani-Najaran Z. (2020). Artemisia: A Promising Plant for The Treatment of Cancer. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 28 (1): 115180.
  • [26] Efferth T. (2017). From Ancient Herb to Modern Drug: Artemisia Annua and Artemisinin For Cancer Therapy. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 46: 65–83.
  • [27] Chen J. (2020). A Pilot Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Treatment of Patients with Common Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). Zhejiang University Medical Sciences, 49: 1.
  • [28] Skipper C. P. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine in Nonhospitalized Adults With Early COVID-19: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173 (8): 623–631.
  • [29] Shereen M. A., Khan S., Kazmi A., Bashir N. and Siddique R. (2020). COVID-19 Infection: Origin, Transmission and Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24: 91.
  • [30] Law S., Leung A. W., and Xu C. (2020). Is The Traditional Chinese Herb ‘Artemisia Annua’ Possible to Fight Against COVID-19? Integrative Medicine Research, 9 (3).
  • [31] Gendrot M. (2020). Antimalarial Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACT) and COVID-19 in Africa: In Vitro Inhibition Of SARS-Cov-2 Replication By Mefloquine-Artesunate. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 99: 437–440.
  • [32] Nordling L. (2020). Unproven Herbal Remedy Against COVID-19 Could Fuel Drug-Resistant Malaria, Scientists Warn. Science, 80: 196609.
  • [33] Bilia A. R., Malgalhaes P. M., Bergonzi M. C., and Vincieri F. F. (2006). Simultaneous Analysis of Artemisinin and Flavonoids of Several Extracts of Artemisia Annua L. Obtained from A Commercial Sample and A Selected Cultivar. Phytomedicine, 13 (7): 487–493.
  • [34] Tian N., Li J., Liu S., Huang J., Li X., and Liu Z. (2012). Simultaneous Isolation of Artemisinin and Its Precursors from Artemisia Annua L. By Preparative RP‐HPLC. Biomedical Chromatography, 26 (6): 708–713.
  • [35] Wang Z. S., Zhu Y. H., Zhang S. L., and Liu X. L. (1981). Determination of Artemisinine and Its Derivatives By High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. Yao Xue Xue Bao, 16 (6): 466–470.
  • [36] Diawara H. Z. (2011). Validation, Transfer and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of An HPLC–UV Method for The Quantification Of Artemisinin in Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Artemisia Annua L. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 56 (1): 7–15.
  • [37] Hao J., Han W., Xue B., and Deng X. (2002). Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Artemisinin from Artemisia Annua L. Separation and Purification Technology, 28 (3): 191–196.
  • [38] Vatan Ö., Rosmarinik Asidin Cisplatine Karşı Antisitotoksik ve Antigenotoksik Etkisinin A549 ve Beas-2B Hücre Hatlarında Araştırılması. Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 45 (39): 263–270.
  • [39] Inci D. (2015). New Water-Soluble Copper (II) Complexes Including 4, 7-Dimethyl-1, 10-Phenanthroline and L-Tyrosine: Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interactions and Cytotoxicities. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 136: 761–770.
  • [40] Franken N. A. P., Rodermond H. M., Stap J., Haveman J. and Van Bree C. Clonogenic Assay of Cells In Vitro. (2006). Nature Protocols, 1 (5): 2315–2319.
  • [41] Browne M. (2016). Imaging and Image Analysis in The Comet Assay. The Comet Assay in Toxicology, 10: 515–550.
  • [42] Swami H. S., Singh K. S. P., Gennaro L., and Dutt R. D. (2008). Extraction Technologies For Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Italy United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology, 66: 200–266.
  • [43] Özgüven M. (2008). Effects of Varying Nitrogen Doses On Yield, Yield Components and Artemisinin Content of Artemisia Annua L. Industrial Crops and Products, 27 (1): 60–64.
  • [44] Ivanescu B., Vlase L., Corciova A., and. Lazar M. I. (2011). Artemisinin Evaluation in Romanian Artemisia Annua Wild Plants Using A New HPLC/MS method. Natural Product Research, 25 (7): 716–722.
  • [45] Acton N., Klayman D. L. and Rollman I. J. (1985). Reductive Electrochemical HPLC Assay for Artemisinin (Qinghaosu). Planta Medica, 51 (5): 445–446.
  • [46] Delabays N., Collet G. and Benakis A. (1992). Selection and Breeding for High Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) Yielding Strains of Artemisia Annua. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference, 4 (330): 203–208.
  • [47] Ghafoori H. (2013). Analysis of Artemisinin Isolated from Artemisia Annua L. by TLC and HPLC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography Related Technologies, 36 (9): 1198–1206.
  • [48] Singh A., Vishwakarma R. A., and A. Husain. (1988). Evalutation of Artemisia Annua Strains for Higher Artemisinin Production. Planta Medica, 54 (5): 475–476.
  • [49] Aquino I., Tsuboy M., Marcarini J. C., Mantovani M. S., Perazzo F. F. and E. L. Maistro. (2013). Genotoxic Evaluation of The Antimalarial Drugs Artemisinin and Artesunate in Human Hepg2 Cells And Effects on CASP3 And SOD1 Gene Expressions. Genetics and Molecular Research, 12(3): 2517–2527.
  • [50] Karaismailoglu M. C. (2010). Investigation of The Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Artemisia Annua Methanol Extract with The Allium Test. Ekoloji, 23 (91): 64–74.
  • [51] Emami A., Zamani T. R. S. H., Ahi A. L. I. and Mahmoudi M. (2010). Cytotoxic Effects of Artemisia Annua Methanol Extract on Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, 17:3.

Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1, 108 - 121, 08.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.1033063

Öz

Kaynakça

  • [1] Balandrin M. F. and Klocke J. A. (1988). Medicinal, Aromatic and Industrial Materials From Plants. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants I, Springer, pp. 3–36. ISBN 978-3-642-73028-3.
  • [2] Pandey A. K. and Singh P. (2017). The Genus Artemisia: A 2012–2017 Literature Review On Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial, Insecticidal and Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils. Medicines, 4 (3): 68.
  • [3] Faydaoğlu E. and Sürücüoğlu M. (2013). Tıbbi ve Aromatik Bitkilerin Antimikrobiyal, Antioksidan Aktiviteleri ve Kullanım Olanakları. Erzincan Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 6 (2): 233–265.
  • [4] Inoue M., Hayashi S., and Craker L. E. (2019). Role of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants: Past, Present and Future. Pharmacognosy: Medicinal Plants. IntechOpen, pp. 20-30. ISBN 978-1-83880-610-1.
  • [5] Davis P. H. (1970). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands. Edinburgh University Press. pp.645.
  • [6] Willcox M. (2009). Artemisia Species: From Traditional Medicines to Modern Antimalarials and Back Again. Journal of Alternative Complementary Medicine, 15 (2): 101–109.
  • [7] Li K.M., Dong X., Ma Y.N., Wu Z. H., Yan Y. M., and Cheng Y. X. (2019). Antifungal Coumarins and Lignans from Artemisia Annua. Fitoterapia, 134: 323–328.
  • [8] Klayman D. L. (1985). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): An Antimalarial Drug from China. Science, 228 (4703): 1049–1055.
  • [9] Hien T. T. and White N. J. (1993). Qinghaosu. Lancet British Edition 8845, pp. 603–608.
  • [10] Kazemi M. (2015). Essential Oil of The Aerial Parts Of Artemisia Annua (Asteraceae) from Iran. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 18 (4): 1003–1005.
  • [11] Wang S., Li Y., Devinsky O., Schachter S., and Pacia S. (2005). Traditional Chinese Medicine. Springer Reactions, 1620. 1: 173.
  • [12] Wright C. W. (2001). Artemisia. CRC Press. ISBN 0 415 272 12 2.
  • [13] Wu Y., Jiang X., Zhang L., and Zhou V. (2017). Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Volatile Oils in Different Periods of Growth of Artemisia Annua L. from China. Journal of Essential Oil Bearing Plants, 20 (5): 1320–1330.
  • [14] Erdemoglu N., Orhan I., Kartal M., Adigüzel N., and Bani B. (2007). Determination of Artemisinin in Selected Artemisia L. Species of Turkey by Reversed Phase HPLC. Records of Natural Products, 1(2): 36.
  • [15] Tu Y. (2011). The Discovery of Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) and Gifts from Chinese Medicine. Nature Medicine, 17 (10): 1217–1220.
  • [16] Ma N., Zhang Z., Liao F., Jiang T., and Tu Y. (2020). The Birth of Artemisinin. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 216: 107658.
  • [17] Li Y. (2012). Qinghaosu (Artemisinin): Chemistry and Pharmacology. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 33 (9): 1141–1146.
  • [18] Aderibigbe B. A. (2017). Design of Drug Delivery Systems Containing Artemisinin and Its Derivatives. Molecules, 22 (2): 323.
  • [19] Krishna S., Bustamante L., Haynes R. K., and Staines H. M. (2008). Artemisinins: Their Growing Importance in Medicine. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 29 (10): 520–527.
  • [20]Yang J. (2020). Advances in The Research on the Targets of Anti-Malaria Actions of Artemisinin. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 216: 107697.
  • [21] Feng L. U., Xin-Long H. E., Richard C., and Jun C. A. O. (2019). A Brief History of Artemisinin: Modes of Action and Mechanisms of Resistance. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicine, 17 (5): 331–336.
  • [22] Woodrow C. J. and Bustamante L. Y. (2011). Mechanisms of Artemisinin Action and Resistance: Wider Focus is Needed. Trends in Parasitology, 27 (1): 2–4.
  • [23] Efferth T., Herrmann F., Tahrani A., and Wink M. (2011). Cytotoxic Activity of Secondary Metabolites Derived from Artemisia Annua L. Towards Cancer Cells in Comparison to Its Designated Active Constituent Artemisinin. Phytomedicine, 18 (11): 959–969.
  • [24] Lubbe A., Seibert I., Klimkait T., and Van der Kooy F. (2012). Ethnopharmacology in Overdrive: The Remarkable Anti-HIV Activity of Artemisia Annua. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 141 (3): 854– 859.
  • [25] Taleghani A., Emami S. A., and Tayarani-Najaran Z. (2020). Artemisia: A Promising Plant for The Treatment of Cancer. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, 28 (1): 115180.
  • [26] Efferth T. (2017). From Ancient Herb to Modern Drug: Artemisia Annua and Artemisinin For Cancer Therapy. Seminars in Cancer Biology, 46: 65–83.
  • [27] Chen J. (2020). A Pilot Study of Hydroxychloroquine in Treatment of Patients with Common Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19). Zhejiang University Medical Sciences, 49: 1.
  • [28] Skipper C. P. (2020). Hydroxychloroquine in Nonhospitalized Adults With Early COVID-19: A Randomized Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173 (8): 623–631.
  • [29] Shereen M. A., Khan S., Kazmi A., Bashir N. and Siddique R. (2020). COVID-19 Infection: Origin, Transmission and Characteristics of Human Coronaviruses. Journal of Advanced Research, 24: 91.
  • [30] Law S., Leung A. W., and Xu C. (2020). Is The Traditional Chinese Herb ‘Artemisia Annua’ Possible to Fight Against COVID-19? Integrative Medicine Research, 9 (3).
  • [31] Gendrot M. (2020). Antimalarial Artemisinin-Based Combination Therapies (ACT) and COVID-19 in Africa: In Vitro Inhibition Of SARS-Cov-2 Replication By Mefloquine-Artesunate. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 99: 437–440.
  • [32] Nordling L. (2020). Unproven Herbal Remedy Against COVID-19 Could Fuel Drug-Resistant Malaria, Scientists Warn. Science, 80: 196609.
  • [33] Bilia A. R., Malgalhaes P. M., Bergonzi M. C., and Vincieri F. F. (2006). Simultaneous Analysis of Artemisinin and Flavonoids of Several Extracts of Artemisia Annua L. Obtained from A Commercial Sample and A Selected Cultivar. Phytomedicine, 13 (7): 487–493.
  • [34] Tian N., Li J., Liu S., Huang J., Li X., and Liu Z. (2012). Simultaneous Isolation of Artemisinin and Its Precursors from Artemisia Annua L. By Preparative RP‐HPLC. Biomedical Chromatography, 26 (6): 708–713.
  • [35] Wang Z. S., Zhu Y. H., Zhang S. L., and Liu X. L. (1981). Determination of Artemisinine and Its Derivatives By High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. Yao Xue Xue Bao, 16 (6): 466–470.
  • [36] Diawara H. Z. (2011). Validation, Transfer and Measurement Uncertainty Estimation of An HPLC–UV Method for The Quantification Of Artemisinin in Hydro Alcoholic Extracts of Artemisia Annua L. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 56 (1): 7–15.
  • [37] Hao J., Han W., Xue B., and Deng X. (2002). Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Artemisinin from Artemisia Annua L. Separation and Purification Technology, 28 (3): 191–196.
  • [38] Vatan Ö., Rosmarinik Asidin Cisplatine Karşı Antisitotoksik ve Antigenotoksik Etkisinin A549 ve Beas-2B Hücre Hatlarında Araştırılması. Uludağ Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, 45 (39): 263–270.
  • [39] Inci D. (2015). New Water-Soluble Copper (II) Complexes Including 4, 7-Dimethyl-1, 10-Phenanthroline and L-Tyrosine: Synthesis, Characterization, DNA Interactions and Cytotoxicities. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 136: 761–770.
  • [40] Franken N. A. P., Rodermond H. M., Stap J., Haveman J. and Van Bree C. Clonogenic Assay of Cells In Vitro. (2006). Nature Protocols, 1 (5): 2315–2319.
  • [41] Browne M. (2016). Imaging and Image Analysis in The Comet Assay. The Comet Assay in Toxicology, 10: 515–550.
  • [42] Swami H. S., Singh K. S. P., Gennaro L., and Dutt R. D. (2008). Extraction Technologies For Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. Italy United Nations Industrial Development Organization and the International Centre for Science and High Technology, 66: 200–266.
  • [43] Özgüven M. (2008). Effects of Varying Nitrogen Doses On Yield, Yield Components and Artemisinin Content of Artemisia Annua L. Industrial Crops and Products, 27 (1): 60–64.
  • [44] Ivanescu B., Vlase L., Corciova A., and. Lazar M. I. (2011). Artemisinin Evaluation in Romanian Artemisia Annua Wild Plants Using A New HPLC/MS method. Natural Product Research, 25 (7): 716–722.
  • [45] Acton N., Klayman D. L. and Rollman I. J. (1985). Reductive Electrochemical HPLC Assay for Artemisinin (Qinghaosu). Planta Medica, 51 (5): 445–446.
  • [46] Delabays N., Collet G. and Benakis A. (1992). Selection and Breeding for High Artemisinin (Qinghaosu) Yielding Strains of Artemisia Annua. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Conference, 4 (330): 203–208.
  • [47] Ghafoori H. (2013). Analysis of Artemisinin Isolated from Artemisia Annua L. by TLC and HPLC. Journal of Liquid Chromatography Related Technologies, 36 (9): 1198–1206.
  • [48] Singh A., Vishwakarma R. A., and A. Husain. (1988). Evalutation of Artemisia Annua Strains for Higher Artemisinin Production. Planta Medica, 54 (5): 475–476.
  • [49] Aquino I., Tsuboy M., Marcarini J. C., Mantovani M. S., Perazzo F. F. and E. L. Maistro. (2013). Genotoxic Evaluation of The Antimalarial Drugs Artemisinin and Artesunate in Human Hepg2 Cells And Effects on CASP3 And SOD1 Gene Expressions. Genetics and Molecular Research, 12(3): 2517–2527.
  • [50] Karaismailoglu M. C. (2010). Investigation of The Cytotoxic and Genotoxic Effects of Artemisia Annua Methanol Extract with The Allium Test. Ekoloji, 23 (91): 64–74.
  • [51] Emami A., Zamani T. R. S. H., Ahi A. L. I. and Mahmoudi M. (2010). Cytotoxic Effects of Artemisia Annua Methanol Extract on Cancer Cell Lines In Vitro. Journal of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, 17:3.

Ayrıntılar

Birincil Dil İngilizce
Konular Mühendislik
Yayınlanma Tarihi june 2022
Bölüm Research Articles
Yazarlar

Belkıs YAŞA>
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-7962-6169
Türkiye


Naile ANGIN>
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9874-9236
Türkiye


Murat ERTAŞ> (Sorumlu Yazar)
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0001-9218-5513
Türkiye


Sibel TUNA>
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0002-4406-9048
Türkiye


Aycan ÇINAR>
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
0000-0003-2038-725X
Türkiye

Destekleyen Kurum The Scientific Research Project Council of Bursa Technical University
Proje Numarası 200COVID02
Teşekkür This study was financially supported by the Scientific Research Project Council of Bursa Technical University (Turkey, Project number: 200COVID02), for which we are thankful. The authors are also grateful to Yasam Pharma Co., for plant sample supply and thankful to Bursa Technical University Central Research Laboratory and Uludag University Genetics and Toxicology Laboratory for their support.
Erken Görünüm Tarihi 22 Şubat 2022
Yayımlanma Tarihi 8 Haziran 2022
Yayınlandığı Sayı Yıl 2022, Cilt 6, Sayı 1

Kaynak Göster

Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jise1033063, journal = {Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering}, eissn = {2602-4217}, address = {ursa Technical University, Mimar Sinan Campus, Mimar Sinan Mah. Mimar Sinan Blv. Eflak Cad. No:177 16310 Yıldırım, Bursa / Turkey}, publisher = {Bursa Teknik Üniversitesi}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, number = {1}, pages = {108 - 121}, doi = {10.38088/jise.1033063}, title = {Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Yaşa, Belkıs and Angın, Naile and Ertaş, Murat and Tuna, Sibel and Çınar, Aycan} }
APA Yaşa, B. , Angın, N. , Ertaş, M. , Tuna, S. & Çınar, A. (2022). Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey . Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering , 6 (1) , 108-121 . DOI: 10.38088/jise.1033063
MLA Yaşa, B. , Angın, N. , Ertaş, M. , Tuna, S. , Çınar, A. "Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey" . Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 (2022 ): 108-121 <http://jise.btu.edu.tr/tr/pub/issue/68623/1033063>
Chicago Yaşa, B. , Angın, N. , Ertaş, M. , Tuna, S. , Çınar, A. "Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 (2022 ): 108-121
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey AU - BelkısYaşa, NaileAngın, MuratErtaş, SibelTuna, AycanÇınar Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.38088/jise.1033063 DO - 10.38088/jise.1033063 T2 - Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 108 EP - 121 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - -2602-4217 M3 - doi: 10.38088/jise.1033063 UR - https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.1033063 Y2 - 2021 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey %A Belkıs Yaşa , Naile Angın , Murat Ertaş , Sibel Tuna , Aycan Çınar %T Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey %D 2022 %J Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering %P -2602-4217 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.38088/jise.1033063 %U 10.38088/jise.1033063
ISNAD Yaşa, Belkıs , Angın, Naile , Ertaş, Murat , Tuna, Sibel , Çınar, Aycan . "Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 / 1 (Haziran 2022): 108-121 . https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.1033063
AMA Yaşa B. , Angın N. , Ertaş M. , Tuna S. , Çınar A. Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey. JISE. 2022; 6(1): 108-121.
Vancouver Yaşa B. , Angın N. , Ertaş M. , Tuna S. , Çınar A. Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey. Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering. 2022; 6(1): 108-121.
IEEE B. Yaşa , N. Angın , M. Ertaş , S. Tuna ve A. Çınar , "Artemisinin Yield and Cyto/Genotoxic Properties of Naturally Grown Artemisia Annua L. In Uludag, Turkey", Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering, c. 6, sayı. 1, ss. 108-121, Haz. 2022, doi:10.38088/jise.1033063


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