Yıl 2018, Cilt 2, Sayı 1, Sayfalar 25 - 33 2018-06-20

Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures

Furkan Turker Saricaoglu [1] , Sadettin Turhan [2]

26 84

In this study, antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of thyme (Thymus vulgaris L., TEO), rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L., REO) and clove essential oils (Syzygium aromaticum L., CEO) and their mixtures (TEO/REO, TEO/CEO, REO/CEO and TEO/REO/CEO) at 1/1 ratio have been evaluated. The agar well diffusion method has been used for screening the antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. For the antioxidant capacity of essential oils and their mixtures, FRAP and DPPH scavenging activity methods have been applied. All of the essential oils and their mixtures have shown an antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms and an increased antioxidant capacity. TEO has displayed the highest inhibition zones against B. subtilis, E. coli O157:H7, L. monocytogenes and S. aureus. In general, the mixing of TEO with other essential oils has caused a decrease of its antimicrobial activity when compared with TEO alone. The lowest antimicrobial activity has been observed from REO alone and mixing REO with TEO and/or CEO has led to an increase of the antimicrobial activity of REO. The FRAP value of essential oils and their mixtures have ranged from 254.83 to 721.16 mM Fe (II)/mL, while the DPPH scavenging activity values have ranged from 0.155 to 4.121 μL oil. All the essential oils and their mixtures have displayed an antioxidant capacity, however the highest antioxidant capacity have been determined by using CEO in both methods, followed by TEO, and REO has showed the lowest antioxidant capacity. These results support the utilization of essential oils extracted from thyme, rosemary and clove and their mixtures at 1/1 ratio as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent in the food industry.  

Antimicrobial activity, Antioxidant capacity, Thyme, Rosemary, Clove essential oils
  • [1] Burt, S. (2004). Essential oils: their antibacterial properties and potential applications in foods-a review. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 94(3): 223-253.
  • [2] Pokorný, J. (1991). Natural antioxidants for food use. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2:223-227.
  • [3] Bakkali, F., Averbeck, S., Averbeck, D. and Idaomar, M. (2008). Biological effects of essential oils – A review. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(2): 446-475.
  • [4] Zaouali, Y., Bouzaine, T. and Boussaid, M. (2010). Essential oils composition in two Rosmarinus officinalis L. varieties and incidence for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2010. 48(11): 3144-3152.
  • [5] Başer, K.H.C. (2006). Aromatic plants as a source of botanicals. Acta Horticulturae, 720: 27-33. [6] Farag, R.S., Badei, A.Z.M.A., Hewedi, F.M., El-Baroty, G.S.A. (1989). Antioxidant activity of some spice essential oils on linoleic acid oxidation in aqueous media. Journal of the American Oil Chemists Society, 66(6): 792-799.
  • [7] Helander, I.M., Alakomi, H-L, Latva-Kala, K., Mattila-Sandholm, T., Pol, I., Smid, E.J., Gorris, L.G.M. and von Wright, A. (1998). Characterization of the Action of Selected Essential Oil Components on Gram-Negative Bacteria. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 46(9): 3590-3595.
  • [8] Lambert, R.J.W., Skandamis, P.N., Coote, P.J., Nychas, G.J. (2001). A study of the minimum inhibitory concentration and mode of action of oregano essential oil, thymol and carvacrol. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 91(3):453-462.
  • [9] Ultee, A., Kets, E.P.W. and Smid, E.J. (1999). Mechanisms of Action of Carvacrol on the FoodBorne Pathogen Bacillus cereus. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65(10):4606-4610.
  • [10] Dadalioǧlu, I. and Evrendilek, G.A. (2004). Chemical Compositions and Antibacterial Effects of Essential Oils of Turkish Oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), Bay Laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish Lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on Common Foodborne Pathogens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(26): 8255-8260.
  • [11] Bozin, B., Mimica-Dukic, N., Samojlik, I., Jovin, E. (2007). Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Properties of Rosemary and Sage (Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) Essential Oils. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 55(19): 7879-7885.
  • [12] Lee, S.-J., et al., (2005). Identification of volatile components in basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) and their antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 91(1): 131137.
  • [13] Youdim, K.A. and Deans, S.G. (2000). Effect of thyme oil and thymol dietary supplementation on the antioxidant status and fatty acid composition of the ageing rat brain. British Journal of Nutrition, 83(1): 87-93.
  • [14] Ruberto, G. and Baratta, M.T. (2000). Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems. Food Chemistry, 69(2): 167-174.
  • [15] Tural, S. and Turhan, S. (2017). Antimicrobial And Antioxidant Properties Of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) And Laurel (Lauris nobilis L.) Essential Oils And Their Mixtures. Gida / The Journal of Food, 42(5): 588-596.
  • [16] Gachkar, L., Yadegari, D., Rezaei, M.B., Taghizadeh, M., Astaneh, S.A., Rasoolic, I. (2007). Chemical and biological characteristics of Cuminum cyminum and Rosmarinus officinalis essential oils. Food Chemistry, 102(3): 898-904.
  • [17] Basmacıoğlu-Malayoğlu, H. (2010). Bibeiryenin (Rosmarinus offcinalis L.) Antioksidan Etkisi. Hayvansal Üretim. 51(2): 59-67.
  • [18] Yanishlieva, N.V., Marinova, E. and Pokorný, J. (2006). Natural antioxidants from herbs and spices. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 108(9): 776-793.
  • [19] Alma, M.H., Ertas, M., Nitz, S., Kollmannsberger, H. (2007). Chemical composition and content of essential oil from the bud of cultivated Turkish clove (Syzygium aromaticum L.). Bioresources, 2(2): 265-269.
  • [20] Leela, N.K. and Sapna, V.P. (2008). Clove, in Chemistry of Spices, V.A. Parthasarathy, B. Chempakam, and T.J. Zachariah, Editors. CAB International: India. p. 445.
  • [21] De, M., A.K. De, and Banerjee, A.B. (1999). Antimicrobial Screening of Some Indian Spices. Phytotherapy Research. 13: 616-618.
  • [22] Dorman, H.J.D., Surai, P. and Deans, S.G. (2000). In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of a Number of Plant Essential Oils and Phytoconstituents. Journal of Essential Oil Research. 12(2): 241-248.
  • [23] Gul, O., Saricaoglu, F.T., Besir, A., Atalar, I., Yazici, F. (2018). Effect of ultrasound treatment on the properties of nano-emulsion films obtained from hazelnut meal protein and clove essential oil. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 41(Supplement C): 466-474.
  • [24] Hamed, S.F., Sadek, Z. and Edris, A. (2012). Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Clove Bud Essential Oil and Eugenol Nanoparticles in Alcohol-Free Microemulsion. Journal of Oleo Science. 61(11): 641-648.
  • [25] Mytle, N., Anderson, G.L., Doylea, M.P., Smith, M.A. (2006). Antimicrobial activity of clove (Syzgium aromaticum) oil in inhibiting Listeria monocytogenes on chicken frankfurters. Food Control. 17(2): 102-107.
  • [26] Rather, M.A., Dar, B.A., Dar, M.Y., Wani, B.A., Shah, W.A., Bhat, B.A., Ganai, B.A., Bhat, K.A., Anand, R., Qurishi, M.A. (2012). Chemical composition, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the leaf essential oil of Juglans regia L. and its constituents. Phytomedicine. 19(13): 1185-1190.
  • [27] Gao, X., Björk, L., Trajkovski, V., Uggla, M. (2000). Evaluation of antioxidant activities of rosehip ethanol extracts in different test systems. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 80(14): 2021-2027.
  • [28] Odabaş, H.İ. and Koca, I. (2016). Application of response surface methodology for optimizing the recovery of phenolic compounds from hazelnut skin using different extraction methods. Industrial Crops and Products. 91: 114-124.
  • [29] Cosentino, S., Tuberoso, C.I., Pisano, B., Satta, M., Mascia, V., Arzedi, E., Palmas, F. (1999). Invitro antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of Sardinian Thymus essential oils. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 29(2): 130-135.
  • [30] Becerril, R., Gómez-Lus, R., Goñi, P., López, P., Nerín, C. (2007). Combination of analytical and microbiological techniques to study the antimicrobial activity of a new active food packaging containing cinnamon or oregano against E. coli and S. aureus. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 388(5): 1003-1011.
  • [31] Çelikel, N. and Kavas, G. (2008). Antimicrobial Properties of Some Essential Oils against Some Pathogenic Bacteria. Czech Journal of Food Sciences. 26(3): 174-181.
  • [32] Mith, H., Duré, R., Delcenserie, V., Zhiri, A., Daube, G., Clinquart, A. (2014). Antimicrobial activities of commercial essential oils and their components against food‐borne pathogens and food spoilage bacteria. Food Science & Nutrition. 2(4): 403-416.
  • [33] Sulieman, A.M.E., El Boshra, I.M.O. and El Khalifa, E.A.A. (2007). Nutritive Value of Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) and Detection of Antimicrobial Effect of its Bud Oil. Research Journal of Microbiology. 2: 266-271.
  • [34] Rao, B.M., Jesmi, D. and Viji, P. (2017). Chilled Storage of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Fillets Coated with Plant Oil Incorporated Alginate Gels: Effect of Clove Leaf, Clove Bud, Rosemary and Thyme Oils. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology. 26(6): 744-755.
  • [35] Prusinowska, R. and Smigielski, K. (2015). Losses of essential oils and antioxidants during the drying of herbs and spices. A review. Nauki Inzynierskie i Technologie. 2(17): 51-62.
  • [36] Üstün, N.Ş. and Turhan, S. (1999). Yağ oksidasyonu ve antioksidanlar. O.M.Ü.Z.F. Yardımcı Ders Notu No:11. 81s.
  • [37] Viuda-Martos, M., Navajas, Y.R., Zapata, E.S., Fernández-López, J., Pérez-Álvarez, J.A. (2010). Antioxidant activity of essential oils of five spice plants widely used in a Mediterranean diet. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 25(1): 13-19.
  • [38] Yanishlieva-Maslarova, N.V. and Heinonen, I.M. (2001). Sources of natural antioxidants: vegetables, fruits, herbs, spices and teas, in Antioxidants in Food, Woodhead Publishing: England. p. 210-263.
  • [39] Basmacıoğlu-Malayoğlu, H., Aktaş, B. and Yeşil-Çeliktaş, Ö. (2011). Bazı Bitki Türlerinden Elde Edilen Uçucu Yağların Toplam Fenol İçerikleri ve Antioksidan Aktiviteleri. Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi. 48(3): 211-215.
  • [40] Loizzo, M.R., Tundis, R., Menichini, F., Duthie, G. (2015). Anti-rancidity effect of essential oils, application in the lipid stability of cooked turkey meat patties and potential implications for health. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition. 66(1): 50-57.
  • [41] Benjemaa, M., Neves, M.A., Falleh, H., Isoda, H., Ksouri, R., Nakajima, M. (2018). Nanoencapsulated Thymus capitatus essential oil as natural preservative. Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies. 45(Supplement C): 92-97.
  • [42] Tohidi, B., Rahimmalek, M. and Arzani, A. (2017). Essential oil composition, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of Thymus species collected from different regions of Iran. Food Chemistry. 220(Supplement C): 153-161.
Birincil Dil en
Konular
Dergi Bölümü Research Articles
Yazarlar

Yazar: Furkan Turker Saricaoglu (Sorumlu Yazar)
Kurum: BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY
Ülke: Turkey


Yazar: Sadettin Turhan
Kurum: ONDOKUZ MAYIS UNIVERSITY
Ülke: Turkey


Bibtex @araştırma makalesi { jise449626, journal = {Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE)}, issn = {}, eissn = {2602-4217}, address = {Bursa Teknik Üniversitesi}, year = {2018}, volume = {2}, pages = {25 - 33}, doi = {}, title = {Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures}, key = {cite}, author = {Turhan, Sadettin and Saricaoglu, Furkan Turker} }
APA Saricaoglu, F , Turhan, S . (2018). Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures. Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE), 2 (1), 25-33. Retrieved from http://jise.btu.edu.tr/issue/38672/449626
MLA Saricaoglu, F , Turhan, S . "Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) 2 (2018): 25-33 <http://jise.btu.edu.tr/issue/38672/449626>
Chicago Saricaoglu, F , Turhan, S . "Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) 2 (2018): 25-33
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures AU - Furkan Turker Saricaoglu , Sadettin Turhan Y1 - 2018 PY - 2018 N1 - DO - T2 - Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 25 EP - 33 VL - 2 IS - 1 SN - -2602-4217 M3 - UR - Y2 - 2018 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures %A Furkan Turker Saricaoglu , Sadettin Turhan %T Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures %D 2018 %J Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) %P -2602-4217 %V 2 %N 1 %R %U
ISNAD Saricaoglu, Furkan Turker , Turhan, Sadettin . "Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme, Rosemary and Clove Essential Oils and Their Mixtures". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering (JISE) 2 / 1 (Haziran 2018): 25-33.