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Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 122 - 137, 08.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.932549

Abstract

Information security has been one of the most important issues of all time for both individuals and companies. Delivering data to the correct recipient is crucial for personal data protection, the privacy of personal life, and national security. To this end, different methods have been developed over the years to hide information from malicious individuals. Steganography is one of the most important information hiding methods that received great attention. In this study, five different audio steganography techniques (least significant bit, echo hiding, wavelet coding, spread spectrum, and cepstrum) are utilized and a comparison of these techniques is performed on Turkish audio recordings. To this end, hidden messages of various sizes were embedded into 20 audio recordings from 10 male and 10 female speakers using different embedding algorithms. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) computed between stego and cover audio files show that embedded message length and frame size are the main factors that determine the quality. In addition, it is observed that there is no perceptual difference between the cover and stego audio recordings. Hence, the human auditory system is unable to determine whether an audio recording is authentic or conveys a hidden message. Experimental results show that as the message length increases, the average SNR value decreases irrespective of the steganography technique, as expected. The well-known least significant bit (LSB) technique yields the highest average SNR value among the five steganography methods. The spectrographic comparison of the cover and stego audio recordings shows that hiding the secret message in an original audio signal highly affects the high-frequency region more than the low-frequency components.

References

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  • [2] Guojie, H., Zhengjin, F., & Ruiling, M. (2003). Chosen ciphertext attack on chaos communication based on chaotic synchronization. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50(2), 275-279.
  • [3] Dutta, P., Bhattacharyya, D., Kim, T. (2009). Data Hiding in Audio Signal: A Review, International Journal of Database Theory and Application, 2(2):1-8.
  • [4] Cvejic, N., Seppänen, T. (2003). Increasing the capacity of LSB-based audio steganography, IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, 336-338. doi: 10.1109/MMSP.2002.1203314.
  • [5] Misshra S., Yadav, V.K., Trivedi, M.C., Shrimali, T. (2018). Audio Steganography Techniques: A Survey, Advances in Computer and Computational Sciences, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 581-589. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-3773-3_56.
  • [6] Kaur, N., Behal, S. (2014). Audio Steganography Techniques-A Survey, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 94-100. doi: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V11P276.
  • [7] Bhavana, D., Tej, D.R., Puneeth, M., Harini, A., Shankar, Y.M., Madhuri, T.S. (2015). Steganography Using Matlab, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) 19-24. doi:10.22161/ijaers.
  • [8] Wakiyama, M., Hidaka, Y., Nozaki, K. (2010). 2010 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing.
  • [9] Djebbar, F., Ayad, B., Meraim, K.A., Hamam, H. (2012). Comparative study of digital audio steganography techniques, EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing doi.org/10.1186/1687- 4722-2012-25.
  • [10] Bender, W., Gruhl, D., Morimoto, N., Lu, A. (1996). Techniques for data hiding, IBM Systems Journal 313-336. doi: 10.1147/sj.353.0313.
  • [11] Shah, P., Choudhari, P., Sivaraman, S. (2008). Adaptive Wavelet Packet Based Audio Steganography using Data History, 2008 IEEE Region 10 and the Third international Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, doi: 10.1109/ICIINFS.2008.4798397.
  • [12] Asad, M., Gilani, J., Khalid, A. (2011). An enhanced least significant bit modification technique for audio steganography, International Conference on Computer Networks and Information [13] Gupta, N., Sharma, N. (2014). Dwt and Lsb Based Audio Steganography, 2014 International Conference on Reliability Optimization and Information Technology (ICROIT), doi: 10.1109/ICROIT.2014.6798368.
  • [14] Bilal, I., Roj, M.S., Kumar, R., Mishra, P.K. (2014). Recent advancement in audio steganography, 2014 International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing, doi: 10.1109/PDGC.2014.7030779
  • [15] Kartheeswaran, T., Senthooran, V., Pemadasa, T.D.D.L. (2015). Multi agent based audio steganography, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), doi: 10.1109/ICCIC.2015.7435706.
  • [16] Lindawati., Siburian, R. (2017). Steganography implementation on android smartphone using the LSB (least significant bit) to MP3 and WAV audio, 2017 3rd International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT), doi: 10.1109/ICWT.2017.8284161.
  • [17] Rajput, S.P., Adhiya K.P., Patnaik, G.K. (2017). An Efficient Audio Steganography Technique to Hide Text in Audio, 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication, Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), doi: 10.1109/ICCUBEA.2017.8463948.
  • [18] Teotia, S., Srivastava, P. (2018). 2018 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), doi: 10.1109/ICCSP.2018.8524182.
  • [19] Anwar, M., Sarosa, M., Rohadi, E. (2019). Audio Steganography Using Lifting Wavelet Transform and Dynamic Key, 2019 International Conference of Artificial Intelligence and Information Technology (ICAIIT), doi: 10.1109/ICAIIT.2019.8834579.
  • [20] C. C. Sobin., Manikandan, V.M. (2019). A Secure Audio Steganography Scheme using Genetic Algorithm, 2019 Fifth International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP), doi: 10.1109/ICIIP47207.2019.8985689.
  • [21] Ying, K., Wang, R., Lin, Y., & Yan, D. (2021). Adaptive Audio Steganography Based on Improved Syndrome-Trellis Codes. IEEE Access, 9, 11705-11715.
  • [22] Rashmi, N. M. (2020, January). Analysis of Audio Steganography combined with Cryptography for RC4 and 3DES Encryption. In 2020 Fourth International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC) (pp. 210-214). IEEE.
  • [23] Ganwani, P., Gupta, L., Jain, C., Kulkarni, R., & Chaudhari, S. (2021, July). LSB Based Audio Steganography using RSA and ChaCha20 Encryption. In 2021 12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  • [24] Yıldıray, Y. (2018) Sayısal imgelerde güvenli veri gizlemeye yönelik uygun maske belirleme, Master Thesis, Fırat Üniversitesi, Elazığ, Turkey, 50 p.
  • [25] Tokur, Y., Erçelebi, E. (2005). Spread Spectrum Audıo Watermarkıng Scheme Based On Psychoacoustıc Model, The International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering(ELECO 2005), 2:143-147.
  • [26] Rabiner, L., & Schafer, R. (2010). Theory and applications of digital speech processing. Prentice Hall Press.
  • [27] Lin, Y., Abdulla, W. H., M. (2014). Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB, Springer, 1-183.
  • [28] Haddadi, R., Abdelmounim, E., Belaguid, A. (2014). Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm for Recognition of QRS Complexes, World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal, 4 (9), 127-132. doi:10.1109/ICMCS.2014.6911261.
  • [29] Hemalatha, S., Acharyaa, U. D., Renuka, A. (2015). Wavelet transform based steganography technique to hide audio signals in image, Procedia Computer Science, 47, 272-281. doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.207.
  • [30] Chun-Lin, L. (2010). A tutorial of the wavelet transform. NTUEE, Taiwan.
  • [31] Akansu, A. N., Haddad, R. A., Haddad, P. A., & Haddad, P. R. (2001). Multiresolution signal decomposition: transforms, subbands, and wavelets. Academic press.
  • [32] Gopalan, K. (2005). Audio Steganography by Cepstrum Modification, IEE International Conference: Acoustic, Speech, and Signal Processing, 5:481-484.
  • [33] Tekeli, K., Asiyan, R. (2009). A Comparison of Echo Hiding Methods, The Eurasia Proceedings of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (EPSTEM), 1:397-403,
  • [34] Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/epstem/issue/31865/365048.
  • [35] Alp, H., Akıncı, T. Ç., Albora, M. (2008). Comparıson Of Fourier And Wavelet Transforms In Geophysical Applicatıons, Journal Of Engineerıng Sciences, 14 (1), 67-76.

Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1, 122 - 137, 08.06.2022
https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.932549

Abstract

References

  • [1] Warkentin M., Schmidt M., Bekkering E. (2007). Steganography and steganalysis, Intellectual Property Protection for Multimedia Information Technology, IGI Global, 374-380, 9781599047621.
  • [2] Guojie, H., Zhengjin, F., & Ruiling, M. (2003). Chosen ciphertext attack on chaos communication based on chaotic synchronization. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I: Fundamental Theory and Applications, 50(2), 275-279.
  • [3] Dutta, P., Bhattacharyya, D., Kim, T. (2009). Data Hiding in Audio Signal: A Review, International Journal of Database Theory and Application, 2(2):1-8.
  • [4] Cvejic, N., Seppänen, T. (2003). Increasing the capacity of LSB-based audio steganography, IEEE Workshop on Multimedia Signal Processing, 336-338. doi: 10.1109/MMSP.2002.1203314.
  • [5] Misshra S., Yadav, V.K., Trivedi, M.C., Shrimali, T. (2018). Audio Steganography Techniques: A Survey, Advances in Computer and Computational Sciences, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing 581-589. doi: 10.1007/978-981-10-3773-3_56.
  • [6] Kaur, N., Behal, S. (2014). Audio Steganography Techniques-A Survey, Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications 94-100. doi: 10.14445/22315381/IJETT-V11P276.
  • [7] Bhavana, D., Tej, D.R., Puneeth, M., Harini, A., Shankar, Y.M., Madhuri, T.S. (2015). Steganography Using Matlab, International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) 19-24. doi:10.22161/ijaers.
  • [8] Wakiyama, M., Hidaka, Y., Nozaki, K. (2010). 2010 Sixth International Conference on Intelligent Information Hiding and Multimedia Signal Processing.
  • [9] Djebbar, F., Ayad, B., Meraim, K.A., Hamam, H. (2012). Comparative study of digital audio steganography techniques, EURASIP Journal on Audio, Speech, and Music Processing doi.org/10.1186/1687- 4722-2012-25.
  • [10] Bender, W., Gruhl, D., Morimoto, N., Lu, A. (1996). Techniques for data hiding, IBM Systems Journal 313-336. doi: 10.1147/sj.353.0313.
  • [11] Shah, P., Choudhari, P., Sivaraman, S. (2008). Adaptive Wavelet Packet Based Audio Steganography using Data History, 2008 IEEE Region 10 and the Third international Conference on Industrial and Information Systems, doi: 10.1109/ICIINFS.2008.4798397.
  • [12] Asad, M., Gilani, J., Khalid, A. (2011). An enhanced least significant bit modification technique for audio steganography, International Conference on Computer Networks and Information [13] Gupta, N., Sharma, N. (2014). Dwt and Lsb Based Audio Steganography, 2014 International Conference on Reliability Optimization and Information Technology (ICROIT), doi: 10.1109/ICROIT.2014.6798368.
  • [14] Bilal, I., Roj, M.S., Kumar, R., Mishra, P.K. (2014). Recent advancement in audio steganography, 2014 International Conference on Parallel, Distributed and Grid Computing, doi: 10.1109/PDGC.2014.7030779
  • [15] Kartheeswaran, T., Senthooran, V., Pemadasa, T.D.D.L. (2015). Multi agent based audio steganography, 2015 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Computing Research (ICCIC), doi: 10.1109/ICCIC.2015.7435706.
  • [16] Lindawati., Siburian, R. (2017). Steganography implementation on android smartphone using the LSB (least significant bit) to MP3 and WAV audio, 2017 3rd International Conference on Wireless and Telematics (ICWT), doi: 10.1109/ICWT.2017.8284161.
  • [17] Rajput, S.P., Adhiya K.P., Patnaik, G.K. (2017). An Efficient Audio Steganography Technique to Hide Text in Audio, 2017 International Conference on Computing, Communication, Control and Automation (ICCUBEA), doi: 10.1109/ICCUBEA.2017.8463948.
  • [18] Teotia, S., Srivastava, P. (2018). 2018 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), doi: 10.1109/ICCSP.2018.8524182.
  • [19] Anwar, M., Sarosa, M., Rohadi, E. (2019). Audio Steganography Using Lifting Wavelet Transform and Dynamic Key, 2019 International Conference of Artificial Intelligence and Information Technology (ICAIIT), doi: 10.1109/ICAIIT.2019.8834579.
  • [20] C. C. Sobin., Manikandan, V.M. (2019). A Secure Audio Steganography Scheme using Genetic Algorithm, 2019 Fifth International Conference on Image Information Processing (ICIIP), doi: 10.1109/ICIIP47207.2019.8985689.
  • [21] Ying, K., Wang, R., Lin, Y., & Yan, D. (2021). Adaptive Audio Steganography Based on Improved Syndrome-Trellis Codes. IEEE Access, 9, 11705-11715.
  • [22] Rashmi, N. M. (2020, January). Analysis of Audio Steganography combined with Cryptography for RC4 and 3DES Encryption. In 2020 Fourth International Conference on Inventive Systems and Control (ICISC) (pp. 210-214). IEEE.
  • [23] Ganwani, P., Gupta, L., Jain, C., Kulkarni, R., & Chaudhari, S. (2021, July). LSB Based Audio Steganography using RSA and ChaCha20 Encryption. In 2021 12th International Conference on Computing Communication and Networking Technologies (ICCCNT) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.
  • [24] Yıldıray, Y. (2018) Sayısal imgelerde güvenli veri gizlemeye yönelik uygun maske belirleme, Master Thesis, Fırat Üniversitesi, Elazığ, Turkey, 50 p.
  • [25] Tokur, Y., Erçelebi, E. (2005). Spread Spectrum Audıo Watermarkıng Scheme Based On Psychoacoustıc Model, The International Conference on Electrical and Electronics Engineering(ELECO 2005), 2:143-147.
  • [26] Rabiner, L., & Schafer, R. (2010). Theory and applications of digital speech processing. Prentice Hall Press.
  • [27] Lin, Y., Abdulla, W. H., M. (2014). Audio Watermark: A Comprehensive Foundation Using MATLAB, Springer, 1-183.
  • [28] Haddadi, R., Abdelmounim, E., Belaguid, A. (2014). Discrete Wavelet Transform Based Algorithm for Recognition of QRS Complexes, World of Computer Science and Information Technology Journal, 4 (9), 127-132. doi:10.1109/ICMCS.2014.6911261.
  • [29] Hemalatha, S., Acharyaa, U. D., Renuka, A. (2015). Wavelet transform based steganography technique to hide audio signals in image, Procedia Computer Science, 47, 272-281. doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.207.
  • [30] Chun-Lin, L. (2010). A tutorial of the wavelet transform. NTUEE, Taiwan.
  • [31] Akansu, A. N., Haddad, R. A., Haddad, P. A., & Haddad, P. R. (2001). Multiresolution signal decomposition: transforms, subbands, and wavelets. Academic press.
  • [32] Gopalan, K. (2005). Audio Steganography by Cepstrum Modification, IEE International Conference: Acoustic, Speech, and Signal Processing, 5:481-484.
  • [33] Tekeli, K., Asiyan, R. (2009). A Comparison of Echo Hiding Methods, The Eurasia Proceedings of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics (EPSTEM), 1:397-403,
  • [34] Retrieved from https://dergipark.org.tr/tr/pub/epstem/issue/31865/365048.
  • [35] Alp, H., Akıncı, T. Ç., Albora, M. (2008). Comparıson Of Fourier And Wavelet Transforms In Geophysical Applicatıons, Journal Of Engineerıng Sciences, 14 (1), 67-76.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Engineering
Published Date june 2022
Journal Section Research Articles
Authors

Funda ASLANTAŞ> (Primary Author)
NATIONAL DEFENCE UNIVERSITY ARMY NCO VOCATIONAL HE SCHOOL ELECTRONICS COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY
0000-0002-9387-7703
Türkiye


Cemal HANİLÇİ>
BURSA TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF ENGINEERING ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
0000-0002-9174-0367
Türkiye

Early Pub Date February 22, 2022
Publication Date June 8, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 6, Issue 1

Cite

Bibtex @research article { jise932549, journal = {Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering}, eissn = {2602-4217}, address = {ursa Technical University, Mimar Sinan Campus, Mimar Sinan Mah. Mimar Sinan Blv. Eflak Cad. No:177 16310 Yıldırım, Bursa / Turkey}, publisher = {Bursa Technical University}, year = {2022}, volume = {6}, number = {1}, pages = {122 - 137}, doi = {10.38088/jise.932549}, title = {Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods}, key = {cite}, author = {Aslantaş, Funda and Hanilçi, Cemal} }
APA Aslantaş, F. & Hanilçi, C. (2022). Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods . Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering , 6 (1) , 122-137 . DOI: 10.38088/jise.932549
MLA Aslantaş, F. , Hanilçi, C. "Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods" . Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 (2022 ): 122-137 <http://jise.btu.edu.tr/en/pub/issue/68623/932549>
Chicago Aslantaş, F. , Hanilçi, C. "Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 (2022 ): 122-137
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods AU - FundaAslantaş, CemalHanilçi Y1 - 2022 PY - 2022 N1 - doi: 10.38088/jise.932549 DO - 10.38088/jise.932549 T2 - Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 122 EP - 137 VL - 6 IS - 1 SN - -2602-4217 M3 - doi: 10.38088/jise.932549 UR - https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.932549 Y2 - 2022 ER -
EndNote %0 Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods %A Funda Aslantaş , Cemal Hanilçi %T Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods %D 2022 %J Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering %P -2602-4217 %V 6 %N 1 %R doi: 10.38088/jise.932549 %U 10.38088/jise.932549
ISNAD Aslantaş, Funda , Hanilçi, Cemal . "Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods". Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering 6 / 1 (June 2022): 122-137 . https://doi.org/10.38088/jise.932549
AMA Aslantaş F. , Hanilçi C. Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods. JISE. 2022; 6(1): 122-137.
Vancouver Aslantaş F. , Hanilçi C. Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods. Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering. 2022; 6(1): 122-137.
IEEE F. Aslantaş and C. Hanilçi , "Comparative Analysis of Audio Steganography Methods", Journal of Innovative Science and Engineering, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 122-137, Jun. 2022, doi:10.38088/jise.932549


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